(Updated to include the galaxy maps from Amidala's "less than a
Below are various screenshots from the Jedi Library scene of AoTC. These provide a visual counterpart to the discussion between Obi-Wan and Dex, wherein we are told that Kamino is a planet beyond the Outer Rim, 12 parsecs south of the Riche Maze. Obi-Wan points to an area of the main galaxy, and then points to the Riche Maze. You can see that the zoom-in is toward the center of the galaxy, falling somewhere in the general vicinity of the center:
Below, we have the map which Amidala called up to show Anakin just how close Geonosis was to Tatooine. The zoom-in is toward a point about 60-70% of the radius of the galaxy away from center.
Presumably the map is not to scale, since it seems to convert two bright areas on the galaxy picture into Tatooine and the ringed Geonosis, which would require us to believe that the entire galaxy is only several parsecs in width. The Galaxy Far Far Away is known to be modest-sized, but that's pushing it.
In any case, both of these zoom-ins are toward planets which are outside the Republic. We are therefore given rough boundaries. Unfortunately, it is not possible to determine the relative orientations of the two galaxy images, which would allow us to have two firm locations. Compare the top view of the galaxy above, for example, with this closer image of Obi-Wan's view: